Forensic Healthcare Online

On-line continuing education information for forensic healthcare professionals

SANE Course Supplemental Materials

with 5 comments

There are a variety of materials I refer to when I teach the SANE (adult/adolescent) course. Many of them are widely available online in full-text or abstract form, so I’ve decided to dedicate a page on the blog to warehouse them. Only materials readily available online are included here. Keep in mind, these are extra pieces I often use to supplement official training manuals (depending on the jurisdiction). It’s not meant to be a comprehensive collection of sexual assault resources. However, if there are others you like and think should be included here, let me know in the Comments. I will try and update this page as new information comes my way.

I’ve linked not only to the resource, but also the source site, so please explore some of the other great information out there. Apologies for not providing complete references for each item; doing so would have made this page unbelievably long.

Alcohol and Drugs

  1. Interpersonal Violence and Alcohol Fact Sheet (PDF); WHO
  2. Prosecuting Alcohol Facilitated Sexual Assault Cases (PDF); NDAA
  3. Alcohol & Sexual Violence Perpetration (PDF); VAWNet
  4. The Relationship Between Alcohol Consumption & Sexual Victimization (PDF); VAWNet
  5. Drug Facilitated Rape: Looking for the Missing Pieces (PDF); NIJ


  1. Applied Reproductive Anatomy (PDF); Centre for Forensic and Legal Medicine, University of Dundee

Anonymous Reporting

  1. FAQs: Anonymous Reporting & Forensic Examinations (PDF); OVW

Emergency Contraception

  1. Emergency Contraceptive Pills: A Review of the Literature (Abstract); PubMed
  2. The Emergency Contraception Website; Princeton University


  1. Do SANE Exams Satisfy the EMTALA Requirement for Medical Screening? (Abstract); PubMed

Exam Guidelines/Protocols  (Examples)

  1. Harborview Center for Sexual Assault & Traumatic Stress Adult/Adolescent Sexual Assault Medical Evaluation (Website)
  2. California Medical Protocol for Sexual Assault & Child Abuse Victims (PDF)
  3. NY State Department of Health Protocol for the Acute Care of the Adult Patient Reporting Sexual Assault (Website)

General Resources (Websites):

  1. National Sexual Violence Resource Center
  2. International Association of Forensic Nursing
  3. Sexual Assault Forensic Examination Technical Assistance Project (SAFE TA)

Genital Injury

  1. Defining Patterns of Genital Injury from Sexual Assault (Abstract); Trauma, Violence & Abuse
  2. Forensic Sexual Assault Examination & Genital Injury: Is Skin Color a Source of Health Disparity?; PubMed Central
  3. Alaska Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner Study


  1. HIPAA Privacy Guidelines (PDF); TAASA [via NCDSV]
  2. HIPAA Overview (Powerpoint); PCAR & PCADV [via NCDSV]

Injury/Wound Documentation

  1. Injuries of Medico-Legal Importance (PDF); Centre for Forensic and Legal Medicine, University of Dundee
  2. Assessment & Terminology: Critical Issues in Wound Care; Medscape
  3. Assessment & Documentation Issues in Wound Care; VNAA

Intimate Partner Sexual Violence

  1. Intimate Partner Sexual Violence (PDF); WCSAP

National Protocol

  1. National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations (PDF; also available at the SAFE TA site in sections)
  2. National Training Standards for Sexual Assault Forensic Examiners (PDF)


  1. Understanding the Non-Stranger Rapist (Vol. 1, Number 11); NDAA
  2. The Undetected Rapist (DVD Order Form); Legal Momentum


  1. Medical Photography Guidelines 2006 (Website); Harborview Center for Sexual Assault & Traumatic Stress

SANE Programs

  1. The Effectiveness of SANE Programs; VAWNet
  2. SANE Sustainability TA Project (Website & Blog); NSVRC
  3. Form Library (Website); SAFE TA

Sexual Assault Response/Resource Teams

  1. SART Toolkit (Website); NSVRC

Sexual Assault Prevalence/Statistics

  1. Extent, Nature & Consequences of Rape Victimization: Findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey (PDF); NCJRS
  2. How Many Women are Raped Each Year in the U.S.?; NCJRS
  3. False Reports: Moving Beyond the Issue to Successfully Investigate & Prosecute  Non-Stranger Sexual Assaults (PDF); NDAA

Specific Populations

  1. People with Disabilities and Sexual Assault Fact Sheet (PDF); WCASA
  2. Describing People with Disabilities (People First Language); Texas  Council for Developmental Disabilities
  3. Table Manners & Beyond: The Exam; BHAWD
  4. Center of Excellence in Elder Abuse & Neglect (Website)
  5. Forensic Markers in Elder Female Sexual Abuse Cases (Abstract); PubMed
  6. Realities for Immigrant Populations: How They Experience the System (PDF); ASISTA
  7. Confidentiality Policy for Victims of Sexual Assault [in the Military] (PDF); SAPR, DoD
  8. Male Survivor (Website)


  1. 2006 Treatment Guidelines; CDC


  1. A Review of 300 Attempted Strangulation  Cases, Pt II: Clinical Evaluation of the Surviving Victim (Abstract); Journal of Emergency Medicine
  2. A Review of 300 Attempted Strangulation Cases, Pt III : Injuries in Fatal Cases (Abstract); Journal of Emergency Medicine


  1. Tips for Testifying as an Expert Witness in Violence Against Women Prosecution (Volume 1, Number 6); NDAA
  2. Preparing Staff for Testimony in Sexual Assault Cases (Abstract); Wiley InterScience
  3. Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners’ Experiences Providing Expert Witness Court Testimony (Abstract); Wiley InterScience

Toluidine Blue Dye

  1. Significance of Toluidine Blue Positive Findings After Speculum Exam for Sexual Assault (Abstract); AJEM

Victim Behavior

  1. Explaining Counterintuitive Victim Behavior in Domestic Violence & Sexual Assault Cases (Volume 1, Number 4); NDAA

Written by Jenifer

April 24, 2009 at 10:51 am

5 Responses

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  1. […] people, that’s what I’ve done. You will find a link on the lower right hand side of the main page labeled exactly the same as this entry, and it […]

  2. Thank you so much. This information is so valuable. I also teach several SANE classes a year. I’m from a rural area and I’m the most experienced so I get to teach. (I really love it to) I had most of these but some I did not and it’s nice to know that I’m on the right track with my teaching. I go by the IAFN guidelines but it’s nice to have this reinforced. Thank you.

    Pam Belkevitz

    April 28, 2009 at 7:40 am

  3. Thanks, this is exactly what I need.


    April 30, 2009 at 2:28 pm

  4. I want to give you a resounding thankyou for such a fabulous resource list. I completed my certificate course and sane training within the last few months and have started studying to sit for my exams. It is graet to add these to my reference library. I thought I was excited when I found forensichealth with the great articles , now I ‘m really happy. I have been trying to research as much as I can about the unconscious patient . Who orders the exam and the different feeling associated in doing an exam. I had no idea when first confronted with the issues it had so many avenues. I’m more confused now ? Any good direction I can take for research? Thankyou, gsReed

    gayle sasnett reed

    August 31, 2009 at 10:28 pm

  5. Gayle,

    Thanks for the lovely comments. The issue of the unconscious patient is a challenging one. The bumper sticker answer is that there is no consensus on how to care for these types of patients. I encourage you to check out the Virtual Practicum DVD (which you can get at if you don’t have it already). In the special topics area, there’s a great roundtable discussion about the issue. However you choose to approach these patients, my biggest piece of advice is to have a policy in place ahead of time. No one wants to hash this out at 3AM. Make sure you involve folks like Risk Management and your ED docs, as well, so everyone’s on the same page and you know people support your decision. Feel free to contact me off the site if you’d like to chat further about this.


    September 1, 2009 at 3:18 pm

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